The good news is that we do have courses covering many, if not all, of those topics you mentioned. We have the 'Penetration Testing' series which covers many of the basic tools/techniques that you're looking for. We also have the 'Hands-On Hacking' series which helps you work on your methodology utilizing CTFs as the targets. Also, while you might not be on the certification path, much of this is also covered and demonstrated in the Pentest+ and CEH series.
Now, all that said. CTFs are usually meant to be a kind of hacking puzzle and many of them don't necessarily reflect a 'real world' experience. I wouldn't feel too bad about having to look up the solution to some CTFs as there are probably some things in many of them that you just don't know about because they're really esoteric, or they're fairly new vulnerabilities/technologies making it unlikely that you'd have much, if any, experience with them. Just do the best you can, and when you reach a sticking point, realize this is just a learning opportunity and you'll be a better hacker after you learn about whatever it is that is stopping you from completing the challenge.
I hope that helps,